Aluminum and aluminum alloy producers and the chemical industry are major users of silicon metal. Silica is also used in manufacture of computer chips, glass and refractory materials; ceramics; abrasives; water filtration; component of hydraulic cements; filler in cosmetics, pharmaceutical, paper, insecticides; anti-caking agent in foods; flatting agent in paints; thermal insulator; and photovoltaic cells. China and IRAN is the leading producer.